Carthage food

Carthage food

What has Bouteflika done differently? What sets Algeria apart? The paper concludes that Europe and North America have little appetite and only limited means to press Algeria to democratise and that the regime possesses strong coercive capabilities. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. The term Maghreb Spring refers to the wide range of events, demands, initiatives and actors that together comprise the Arab Awakening as it manifests itself in Northwest Africa. After serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs from to , Bouteflika was one of the frontrunners to succeed President Houari Boumedienne when he died in December The Maghreb has long been considered a special region. Located at the geo-cultural intersection between Africa, the Middle East and Europe, its countries Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya are bound by commonalities that distinguish them from everywhere else Humbaraci , p. There is an apparent inconsistency in Competitive Authoritarianism over the number of categories of links.


History of pages last visited. Maroc 40 rue Hadj Omar Riffi 20 Casablanca. It is always with great pleasure that we welcome you to our stand to present you our latest concept and new materials! For this new edition , you can meet us from October 1st to 3rd on our booth A01 at the International Conference Centre in Algiers Algeria.

the Arab Muslim traditions and history of the country, often dating back to medieval times, and Medina and these have underlined the intensity and speed of the changes going du Maghreb Contemporain, UNESCO, Revue Autrement, Marrakesh derrière les portes, N° Hors série n°22, Paris, January , p.

The region stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Maghreb is vital to both French and European interests. Its stability is essential to the balance of the globalized world, both economically and in terms of security. What will be the impact of the Covid crisis in this region? How are different countries dealing with the situation? What will be the political and social consequences for each of them? Who will be benefiting in the Arab world, and how will the power play between the United States, China and Russia be affected?

It is not only religion, language or cultural factors that give a certain unity to this otherwise obviously diverse region. It is also a political culture marked by authoritarianism, albeit to varying degrees and according to different national traditions. In most of the states in focus here, Covid has triggered some typical reactions: an initial denial of reality, a politicisation of the crisis used to counter opponents, tighter social control and even conspiracy theories.

We are thus witnessing the usual exploitation of crises by religiously extremist circles: for some the virus was transmitted by Shiite communities, for others the disease is the result of an “imperialist” or Sunni virus. The unreliability of figures is a consequence of authoritarian practices, further reinforced by the lawlessness of areas such as Syria, Yemen and Libya. It is also important to factor in the deceptive methods of these authoritarian governments, for whom success will be measured by the most effective dissimulation of the human cost of the pandemic, rather than the ability to curb it.

Moreover, though alongside oil monarchies, a number of these countries are in a difficult economic situation, making the shock of the health crisis particularly severe.

Ambassadors’ conference – Speech by M. Emmanuel Macron, President of the Republic

Pathways for achieving the 1. This analysis is carried out for the case of the Maghreb region, which enjoys abundantly available low-cost renewable energy resources. The energy transition results for the Maghreb region lead to a solar photovoltaic PV -dominated energy supply with some wind energy contribution.

2This chapter offers an overview of the existing infrastructure in the Maghreb, Algeria, for example, has an ambitious programme to build a high-speed network​, the complex nomenclature and the lack of reliable, up-to-date and simplified Transport Logistics: Shared Solutions to Common Challenges, Paris, OECD.

In February, Egis presented to the municipality of Tallinn Estonia the results of its study on the optimization of a connection between the future Ulemiste station of the Rail Baltica RB high-speed railway line project and the passenger port of the Estonian capital, from where ferries depart for the Scandinavian countries. This megaproject foresees the construction of a new railway line from Tallinn to Warsaw, via Latvia and Lithuania, but also integrates the development of new infrastructure options at the regional level.

In Tallinn, the tramway line should allow the short-term continuity of the route to the port and therefore to the Scandinavian countries. In the longer term, an extension of the high-speed railway line through a tunnel to Helsinki could be created. The study produced by Egis was based on technical and economic aspects and took into account various criteria such as urban integration conditions, speed, the scale of investments, maintenance costs, etc.

The Egis teams analysed three options, and the one chosen is for the development and operation of the existing tramway network. This new tramway corridor will make the city centre and the old port more attractive and more accessible for residents as well as for tourists who are already 10 million per year to frequent the port. The cost of the project is estimated at around 26 million euros. Implementation will depend on the planning of the city of Tallinn, but according to the analysis, the extension could be commissioned by the end of In presenting the results of this study, Egis once again demonstrated its expertise and the effectiveness of its teams in the early studies of an international urban project.

Linkage, leverage and organisational power: Algeria and the Maghreb Spring

Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika inaugurated the first underground rail system in a Maghreb country, when he cut the ribbon at a ceremony in a new metro station in Algiers on Monday. After almost thirty years, the new system is finally up and running and from Tuesday it will be open to the Algerian public. Some observers have criticised the price of the tickets, the equivalent of about five loaves of bread in Algeria, but Transport Minister Amar Tou insists that the cost is subsidised by the state.

There will be ten metro stations and extensions to the line are already under construction, while at least two more lines are planned to serve the city of three million people. The system was built by Siemens France, Vinci and CAF, who won the contract after it was put out to international tender. Eric Cazeaux, Director of Division Rail Systems at Siemens France, hailed the success of the project and highlighted the contribution made by Algerian engineers and technicians.

The few studies specifically devoted to gentrification in Paris concern a of each neighbourhood in the wider context of the city as a whole, and dating back to the Whether it is the Maghreb population of the Goutte d’Or area, the Africans of this mainly refers to a neighbourhood where traffic speed is reduced and pub .

It’s just that the [AQIM] people are engaged in a murderous escalation. There is a military option which is being imposed on us. AQIM has consistently targeted French interests in both word and action. Mauritanian security forces and 20 to 35 French soldiers supported by planes circling overhead launched the operation from an airport in Tessalit in northeastern Mali. Even if Germaneau died prior to July 24, the rapid response shows the flexibility of the AQIM organization to adapt based on developing events.

Beyond command-and-control and communications, the group also appeared to provide false intelligence to the French, perhaps causing Paris to commit force to an operation already under development by Mauritania to pre-empt an AQIM operation under the belief that AQIM was holding Germaneau at the raided camp. The movement views its opponents in the Algerian government as remnants of the French colonial overlords that Algerians defeated during the Algerian war for independence.

AQIM has only killed one other Western hostage. Even if Germaneau died prior to the July 22 raid, the method and speed by which the group chose to present his death sends the same message. AQIM also likely intends the killing of Germaneau to show that the West should take its threats as seriously as its ransom demands. AQIM uses strikingly similar wording in threatening the U.

The West and regional partners have taken the group seriously.

Al Qaeda’s North Africa branch praises gunmen for Paris attack

This article presents a synthetic map of the spatial dynamics of gentrification in Paris since the s. While the notion of gentrification has given rise to numerous studies since the s, in particular in Britain and North America, very few researchers have focused on the spatial dynamics of this process in a given city, or made attempts to map the phenomenon. These different sources enable an interpretation of gentrification as a process of spatial diffusion from centre to periphery starting from a historical core in the beaux quartiers of the west of Paris.

This confirms the analyses reported by the Anglo-American studies, in which gentrification appears as a process of social conquest taking the form of a pioneer frontier.

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The city is a major railway, highway and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris—Charles de Gaulle the second busiest airport in Europe and Paris—Orly. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with million passengers in Paris received 38 million visitors in , measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and China.

The city hosted the Olympic Games in , and will host the Summer Olympics. The name ‘Paris’ is derived from its early inhabitants, the Gallic Parisii tribe. By , the Grand boulevards were lit. The Parisii , a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones , inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.

Clovis the Frank , the first king of the Merovingian dynasty , made the city his capital from By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. After the marshland between the river Seine and its slower ‘dead arm’ to its north was filled in around the 10th century, [33] Paris’ cultural centre began to move to the Right Bank.

In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between and , rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.

Terrorist Financing and Virtual Currencies: Different Sides of the Same Bitcoin?

Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia should go beyond security and military measures to address persistent local grievances and tensions that ISIS has proven adept in exploiting. In this sense, and while ISIS does not consider the Maghreb its main arena for any of those three forms of activity, how it performed in the region, and how states reacted to its rise, tells us a lot about the organisation. To much of the outside world, Tunisia is known equally for its relatively successful democratic transition as for the fact that it boasts the highest ratio per capita of people who have joined ISIS to fight outside their country.

Progress has been made to address several of these matters, but not all, and almost certainly not in a sustainable manner.

The region stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Maghreb is vital to both French and affected by the crisis so far: China is building a high-speed railway line in Qom, the To date, there are over 5, Covid victims in Iran and more than 80, infected cases. 59, rue la Boétie Paris FRANCE.

For a number of months, relations between Rabat and Paris have been deteriorating into a bone-breaking fight. In recent weeks, it has turned into a veritable cold war on various fronts: political, diplomatic, economic and even in the media. A number of recent developments indicate the depth of the crisis between the two countries. As far as pressuring Rabat into maintaining their preferential economic position in the Kingdom is concerned, the French have apparently played all their cards.

Reports confirm that they have lost significant ground to regional powers such as Spain and international powers such as China. Many observers link the tensions and the diplomatic stand-off between the two countries to France’s dismay at the news that China is expected to win the anticipated high-speed rail project between Marrakesh and Agadir. This is a direct threat to France and its historical control over the railways market.

Its monopoly was underlined in when the work to implement the first part of the Tangier — Casablanca project was given to the French company Alstom at the vast cost of U. Little by little, the Chinese dragon has begun to devour what the French rooster believed was his and his alone.


The meeting was devoted to a review of railway cooperation in the Maghreb region and to plans for the future integration of the rail systems of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya and Egypt. Mrs Derbel, who currently chairs the Maghreb Rail Transport Committee, spoke of the progress made with regional cooperation projects, and encouraged the various partners to step up the closer collaboration which would enable joint priority projects to go ahead.

The technical experts invited gave presentations highlighting the opportunities for greater interoperability between railways in the region.

Fondation Maison des Sciences Humaine et Sociales de Paris, 54 boulevard and the speed of defining, structuring and describing all types of data, according to To date, there are several.

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This program combines the rigorous study of the French language at an advanced level with a broad range of classes taught in French by accomplished faculty. You can also experience what life is like for French students by taking one or more courses at a local university— we have six options you can choose from. Tutoring is available if you need help with the transition to higher education in France. Paris will be your classroom. This program facilitates full immersion in the French language and in French society through a varied and dynamic academic program, excellent homestays, cultural activities, internships, and conversation clubs.

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